Forming of the soil in the territory of the City of Banja Luka and its physical and chemical characteristics were dominantly affected by relief, geological surface, climate and activities by man.

Given the relief, three categories stand out: valleys, hills and mountains. Valleys are the deepest and their value in terms of agriculture is potentially the highest but they are also the rarest. Hills are the most common, while production possibilities are rather limited, depending on terrain slope and soil depth, as well as physical and chemical properties. Mountainous land is, in principle, the shallowest. They are somewhat deep and productive on mountain plateaus, e.g. in the area of the village of Stričići. In general, they are mainly covered with forests, mountain pastures and meadows.

The City disposes of 123,898 hectares of land. According to the cadastral structure, the most common is agricultural land from I to VIII land capability classification (71,440 ha or 57.6% of total city land area) as well as land covered with forests (37.8% of total city surface area).

Agricultural land occupies more than half of the total surface area of the City but with rather small share of areas for an intensive agricultural production. Agricultural land is a non-renewable natural resource.